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What is the difference between the paternal haplogroup and its subtypes?

A paternal haplogroup is a genetic group defined by the presence of specific genetic markers inherited through the paternal line (paternal haplogroup). These genetic markers are specific variants in DNA that characterize a particular group of people with common genetic ancestry. In simple terms, a haplogroup is like a “branch” on the human family tree that groups individuals with shared ancestors. It allows you to trace the historical journey that your paternal ancestors have taken.

A sub-haplogroup (or subclade) is a more specific subdivision within a broader haplogroup. Haplogroups can be quite large and non-specific, grouping many people with shared genetic characteristics in terms of their paternal ancestry. For this reason, researchers often divide haplogroups into what are known as “sub-haplogroups,” smaller groups within the haplogroups. These sub-haplogroups are defined by additional genetic markers that are rarer and more specific, allowing for a more detailed classification of ancestral lines.